Southern Right Whales

The southern right whale (Eubalaena australis) is a magnificent marine mammal that inhabits the Southern Hemisphere’s oceans. Belonging to the family Balaenidae, it shares its lineage with two other right whale species, the North Atlantic and North Pacific right whales. While previously thought to be of the same species during the early whaling era, genetic […]

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Humpback Whale

Humpback Whales

Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) are among the most iconic species inhabiting the world’s oceans. Best known for their elaborate displays of behaviour, humpback whales exhibit considerable activity near the water’s surface, such as breaching and surface slapping with their flippers and tail (known as lobtailing). These actions are thought to constitute play, socialisation, communication, and

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Bioluminescence is a captivating natural phenomenon which occurs when living organisms generate light through internal chemical reactions. It is observed throughout a wide range of ecosystems in a number of different species, including fish, cephalopods such as octopus and squid, bacteria, fungi, fireflies and phytoplankton. Bioluminescence is a ‘cold light’ that emits minimal heat, and

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Dorids, commonly known as dorid nudibranchs (Doridoidea), belong to the group of soft- bodied sea slugs scientifically classified as Opisthobranchia. The term Doridoidea originates from the genus name Doris, which itself traces back to the sea nymph of the same name in Greek mythology. With a remarkable diversity exceeding 2000 species, dorids stand out as

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Pineapple Fish

Pineapple Fish

The pineapple fish (Cleidopus gloriamaris), also known as the Mailfish or Knightfish, is an intriguing species belonging to the Monocentridae family. Inhabiting the Pacific and Indian Oceans, from South Africa to Australia and Japan, this elusive species thrives at varying depths, typically ranging from 6 to 200 metres, and favouring habitats such as coral reefs

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Sea Pen

Sea Pen

Sea pens, belonging to the order Pennatulacea, are a diverse group of colonial cnidarians, consisting of approximately 200 described species found in oceans across the world. Species vary greatly in size, with the aptly named tall sea pen (Funiculina quadrangularis) being the largest among them, exceeding heights of over 2 m. As predominantly benthic creatures,

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Sea Fan

Sea Fans

Sea fans, also known as gorgonians, are a group of soft corals belonging to the phylum Cnidaria, within the class Anthozoa. These sessile colonial animals thrive in a variety of marine habitats, from shallow coral reefs to deeper continental slopes. Found predominantly in tropical, subtropical, deep sea and polar environments, their presence contributes significantly to

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Finding a Real Octopus

Common Octopus

Belonging to the class Cephalopoda along with squid and cuttlefish, the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) is a fascinating mollusk inhabiting temperate and tropical oceans across the world. Renowned for its complex behaviour and remarkable adaptability, this species has long captured the curiosity of scientists and marine enthusiasts alike. The common octopus has a distinct bulbous

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Comb Jellyfish

Comb Jellyfish

Ctenophora, commonly known as comb jellies, comprises a diverse phylum of marine invertebrates found in oceans across the world. These intriguing organisms are distinguished by their unique propulsion mechanism, utilising specialised cilia called “combs” for locomotion. Remarkably, ctenophores are the largest animals known to employ cilia for movement, ranging widely in size from a few

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The largest family of sharks, known as Scyliorhinidae, consists of over 17 genera and approximately 150 species. This group comprises species commonly known as shysharks; small to medium-sized elasmobranchs that are widely distributed in temperate waters across the world’s oceans. Despite their classification as sharks, these enigmatic creatures are harmless to humans, and characterised by

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